Therapies Explained

It is worth pointing out the word, ‘PSYCHOTHERAPY’ is an often-misunderstood word.  The definition is simple enough, PSYCHO – the mind and THERAPY – to heal.  So, it is regularly used as a generic term for all therapies.  
But, the word is also a model of talking treatment that is based around Freudian theory and practice and has become to mean a therapy that guides rather than just facilitate change as does counselling.  More intervention and therefore often shorter periods of treatment.  

ART PSYCHOTHERAPY

Art psychotherapy uses art as a communication, it is generally not used as a diagnostic method.  All ages can benefit from this form of therapy and is an excellent tool to address distressing emotional trauma.

It is also a working model in many area such as, behavioural or mental health issues.  Also with learning or physical disabilities and life limiting conditions.  

Therapy can be individual or in groups and clients are not required to have any artistic skills.  Therapy is most certainly not a recreational art class even though clients do report that sessions can be enjoyable.

This form of therapy is very client centred and focuses on several grounding models of therapy such as psychoanalysis, attachment theory and mindfulness.

COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (CBT)

1. The way people think affects how they feel.
2. And that how they feel affects what they do
3. And this in turn affects how they think…
There is plenty of research to suggest it can be very effective in treating many psychological health issues.  CBT looks at how we think about a situation and how this affects the way we act. This stems from the rules we make for ourselves in how to live our lives. In turn our actions can affect how we think and feel.  The therapist and client work together in changing the client’s behaviours, rules and patterns of thinking.

BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY

As a stand-alone treatment or as an adjunct to many other modalities of therapy.  In simple terms, BA is homework that the client and therapist agree during a session.But, getting to the correct forms of homework takes a skilled therapist.  This way the client is guided through their therapeutic journey.
In depressive illness and other mood disorders, behavioural activation is based on the theory that once depressive illness has begun, the client tends to engage in increasing avoidance and isolation which can become a downward spiral.
The goal of treatment is to work with depressed individuals to gradually decrease their avoidance and isolation and increase their engagement in activities that have been shown to improve mood.

PSYCHOANALYSIS

Psychoanalytic psychologists see psychological problems as rooted in the unconscious mind.
The symptoms the client displays are caused by hidden or repressed thoughts and feelings.   Treatment focuses on bringing the repressed conflict to consciousness, where together the client and therapist can deal with it.
We all have mechanisms to defend our conscious mind from harm.  This is when we are likely to repress feelings and emotions and place guarded thoughts to protect the bad feelings from coming out.  

This approach assumes that the reduction of symptoms alone is not enough unless the underlying conflict is also resolved.  

POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 

During the 1990s, world-renowned psychologist Martin Seligman pioneered a new psychological movement. Prior to that, traditional psychology had tended to have a more negative focus on the shortcomings of individuals. Positive psychology changed that  focus by researching what healthy, happy and successful people were doing in life, both at individual and group level.

Positive psychology recognises the potential of individuals and communities. It helps develop people's strengths and apply them to achieve a meaningful, fulfilling and thriving life.

HYPNOTHERAPY

Hypnotherapy is a treatment for a variety of psychological health issues. Pioneers in hypnotherapy used such techniques to successfully anesthetise patients for a range of different medical procedures and even major surgeries. Now often used as a pre-operation relaxant.
Hypnosis has been through a revolution of method and concept since Victorian usage by such as Freud (1856-1939).  Now hypnotherapy is used as an addition and aid to psychotherapy and other modalities.  A great tool for any therapists’ toolbox and a great first line of defence against anxiety.
But also as a standalone therapy, hypnosis is a brilliant transformational tool with a variety of uses.  As well as an additional tool in psychotherapy the techniques can be used in dentistry and medicine.  Control weight, stop smoking, clear phobias and pain management to name just a few.  
It can also be used in uncovering repressed memories and trauma and even help you find lost keys.  All in all, nothing to be afraid of and under a hypnotic trance probably more relaxed than you have ever been in your life!

COACHING

“A collaborative, solution focused, result-orientated and systematic process in which the coach facilitates the enhancement of work performance, life experience, self-directed learning and person growth of the coachee” (Grant 1999, basic definition also referred to by the Association for Coaching, 2005).
Coaching is a profession that is rather different from therapy or counselling. The coaching process addresses specific personal projects, business successes, general conditions and transitions in the client's personal life, relationships or profession by examining what is going on right now, discovering what the obstacles or challenges might be and choosing a course of action to make your life be what you want it to be.
Coaching is a designed alliance between coach and client where the coaching relationship continually gives all the power back to the client.  A Coach believes that you know the answers to every question or challenge you may have in your life, even if those answers appear to be obscured, concealed or hidden inside.  

COUNSELLING

Counselling as we understand it today belongs to the humanistic school of therapy and was created by Carl Rogers (1902-1987), an American psychologist who in the 1950s, proposed a form of therapy.  It focusses on the clients’ experience of themselves rather than the counsellor (therapist) telling what was wrong with them and guiding them to better ways of being. The counsellor instead does not intervene but facilitates the clients’ own process of development and change.  
The therapy relies on the quality of the relationship between the counsellor and the client. This is sometimes called a way of being, with the counsellor demonstrating what is known as the core conditions, which form the basis of the relationship.
Empathy (the counsellor trying to understand the client’s point of view) Congruence (the counsellor being a genuine person)
Unconditional positive regard (the counsellor being non-judgemental) Given the right relationship with the therapist, person-centred therapy harnesses the client’s natural self-healing process as they alone decide what they want to do with their lives. To this end person-centred therapy is a personal growth model also known as non-directive therapy.

NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING (NLP)

NLP is a method of influencing brain behaviour (the "neuro" part of the phrase) using language (the "linguistic" part) and other types of communication to enable a person to "recode" the way the brain responds to stimuli (that's the "programming") and manifest new and better behaviours. Neuro-Linguistic Programming often incorporates hypnosis and self-hypnosis to help achieve the change or programming that is desired.

ADDITIONAL MODALITIES that are often ‘ADD-ON’ 


Many multi-disciplinary therapists continually update and add to their therapeutic toolbox with supplementary techniques and qualifications.  Most professional associations expect their members to do a minimum amount of continuous professional development every year.  Often this will take the form of additional techniques such as some of the following.

EMDR

EMDR is an acronym for ‘Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing’. EMDR is a powerful psychological treatment method that was developed by an American clinical psychologist, Dr Francine Shapiro, in the 1980s. As a Senior Research Fellow at the Mental Research Institute, she published the first research data to support the benefits of the therapy in 1989.
EMDR is a complex and powerful therapy. Therapists always have a background in mental health before undertaking training in EMDR. You are strongly recommended to only consult legitimate clinicians who have undergone a bona-fide EMDR training. The EMDR Europe and EMDR UK and Ireland accredited training organisations can be found under ‘Trainers’ on this website.
http://emdrassociation.org.uk/whatis-emdr/   

EFT

EFT - Emotional Freedom Techniques is a relatively new discovery and a fast-evolving treatment within the field of Energy Psychology which is catching the attention of healers, scientists, spiritualists and lay people.
Often referred to as "Psychological acupressure", the technique works by releasing blockages within the energy system which are the source of emotional intensity and discomfort. These blockages in our energy system in addition to challenging us emotionally, often lead to limiting beliefs and behaviours and an inability to live life harmoniously.
The tapping techniques involved in EFT are easily learned by the client and can be beneficial in many ways.

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